Multi-item scales

The scales developed for the project are free to reuse and repurpose provided appropriate bibliographical reference (citation) is provided in the resulting instrument and publications.

More scales will be added successively as we move through the project.

Teachers’ engagement in remote teaching scale (N = 1,487; Cronbach’s α = 0.72, McDonald’s ωₕ = 0.75, Guttman’s λ6= 0.71, Raykov’s ρ = 0.76) and teacher coping with remote instructionscale (N = 1,487; Cronbach’s α = 0.78, McDonald’s ωₕ = 0.80, Guttman’s λ6& Raykov’s ρ = 0.76) with the results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ engagement in and coping with emergency remote instruction during COVID-19-induced school closures: A multi-national contextual perspective. Online Learning Journal, 25(1), 303–328. [special issue “Lessons About Online Learning from COVID-19”] DOI: 10.24059/olj.v25i1.2492

Item Short Label Factor Loading
1 2
During this epidemic, I have felt that I have to alter not just the medium and method, but also the content of my classes. modified class content .71* .08
I have had to modify my lesson plans for remote teaching. modified lesson plans .70* −.11
I have eased the grading scheme. eased grading .65* −.10
I preferred the ‘normal’ class format to the remote one I’m teaching now. preference for F2F format .58* .22
I feel that remote teaching reduces my possibility to meet students’ individual/special needs. reduced possibility to meet students’ needs .58* .34
I feel disengaged in the remote teaching. perceived engagement .56* .41
I hadn’t expected remote teaching to be this hard. RT unexpectedly difficult .51* .34
I haven’t been able to fully utilise the potential of remote teaching because of lack of access to hardware. lack of hardware curtailing RT potential .23 .60*
I feel that I have been left behind by the shift to remote teaching. feeling left behind .22 .60*
I felt confident in my ability to teach remotely when I was told to do so. initial confidence in RT ability −.29 −.53*
I have often encountered technical problems with the class. tech issues .24 .51*
I worry about privacy and the security of the software/platform. cybersecurity anxiety .14 .51*
I have someone to turn to for support if I experience technical problems with the remote teaching. tech support .06 −.50*

* The component loadings > .50. Component loadings were obtained using exploratory factor analysis, which allows reducing the data. To extract the factors, we applied the principal components method with orthogonal varimax rotation. As a result. two factors were obtained: Factor 1 measuring teachers’ engagement is loaded by 7 items. whereas Factor 2 reflecting teacher coping is composed of 6 items.

Access to resources scale (N = 1,944, α & ωh = .72, λ6 = .63)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). The impact of disparities and awareness thereof on educators’ psychological overload during emergency remote teaching: The mediating roles of logistics, perception of student coping and appraisal of situational impact.

Items  M SD rtt
My computer is too slow for the remote teaching software. 2.43 1.50 .56
I lack access to printed materials and resources to prepare my classes. 3.01 1.76 .48
I haven’t been able to fully utilise the potential of remote teaching because of lack of access to hardware (computer/webcam/tablet/printer/scanner …). 2.85 1.67 .58
Scale 8.29 3.94 .46

Perception of student coping scale (N = 1,944, α & ωh = .77, λ6 = .75)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). The impact of disparities and awareness thereof on educators’ psychological overload during emergency remote teaching: The mediating roles of logistics, perception of student coping and appraisal of situational impact.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel that some of my students have been left behind/fallen through the cracks in the shift to remote teaching. 2.48 1.51 .55
My students have not coped well with remote learning. 3.42 1.39 .66
My students have responded positively to my remote teaching. 4.23 1.18 .38
The students have trouble with concentration and staying focused during the online classes. 2.83 1.45 .56
I feel that remote teaching reduces my possibility to meet students’ individual/ special needs. 2.46 1.47 .55
Scale 15.43 5.05 .40

Anxiety about the future scale (N = 1,944, α & ωh = .76, λ6 = .77)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). The impact of disparities and awareness thereof on educators’ psychological overload during emergency remote teaching: The mediating roles of logistics, perception of student coping and appraisal of situational impact.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel anxious about my future. 3.83 1.58 .65
I worry about my job stability. 3.39 1.74 .65
I worry about housing instability. 2.54 1.56 .52
The current crisis will further social inequalities. 4.98 1.20 .32
I am afraid of an approaching economic crisis. 4.79 1.21 .51
Scale 19.53 5.26 .39

Family support scale (N = 1,944, α = .73, ωh = .78, λ6 = .70)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). The impact of disparities and awareness thereof on educators’ psychological overload during emergency remote teaching: The mediating roles of logistics, perception of student coping and appraisal of situational impact.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel comfortable having my family/partner/roommates/flatmates around during this time. 4.69 1.54 .36
I have good relations at home. 4.55 1.99 .67
I enjoy being able to spend more time with my family/children/partner. 4.80 1.97 .65
Scale 14.04 4.44 .48

Psychological overload scale (N = 1,944, α & ωh = .92, λ6 = .93)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). The impact of disparities and awareness thereof on educators’ psychological overload during emergency remote teaching: The mediating roles of logistics, perception of student coping and appraisal of situational impact.

Items  M SD rtt
My dreams have been more emotional/anxious. 3.23 1.67 .51
I feel I have been losing my sanity. 2.63 1.49 .71
I find it harder to get out of bed in the morning. 2.91 1.66 .66
I feel tired during the day. 3.74 1.60 .71
I am feeling exhausted all the time. 3.21 1.66 .74
I have been feeling irritable. 3.36 1.54 .76
I feel building up pressure. 3.40 1.61 .77
I have been sad. 3.54 1.60 .76
I have been having bouts of anxiety/panic attacks. 2.85 1.69 .71
I feel no motivation to do anything. 2.85 1.55 .68
I feel lonely. 2.83 1.67 .55
Scale 34.55 13.26 .52

Instructional adjustment scale (N = 1,944, α = .70)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ perception of student coping with emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The relative impact of educator demographics and professional adaptation and adjustment. Frontiers in Psychology [research topic “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychoeducational Variables Involved in the Health Emergency”]. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648443

Items  M SD rtt
I have had to modify my lesson plans for remote teaching. 4.97 1.40 .49
I have eased the grading scheme. 4.41 1.57 .43
During this epidemic, I have felt that I have to alter not just the medium and method, but also the content of my classes. 4.29 1.60 .54
Scale 13.66 3.55 .41

Evaluation concerns scale (N = 1,944, α = .80)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ perception of student coping with emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The relative impact of educator demographics and professional adaptation and adjustment. Frontiers in Psychology [research topic “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychoeducational Variables Involved in the Health Emergency”]. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648443

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Items  M SD rtt
I find it difficult to evaluate students’ activity during online classes. 4.20 1.59 .66
I am unable to verify whether the students are learning. 3.94 1.54 .66
Scale 8.14 2.86 .66

Perceived student coping scale (N = 1,944, α = .72)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ perception of student coping with emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The relative impact of educator demographics and professional adaptation and adjustment. Frontiers in Psychology [research topic “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychoeducational Variables Involved in the Health Emergency”]. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648443

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Items  M SD rtt
I feel that some of my students have been left behind/fallen through the cracks in the shift to remote teaching. 2.48 1.51 .53
My students have not coped well with remote learning. 3.42 1.39 .67
My students have responded positively to my remote teaching. 4.23 1.18 .37
The students have trouble with concentration and staying focused during the online classes. 2.83 1.45 .48
Scale 12.97 4.10 .40

Supportive teaching scale (N = 1,944, α = .72)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ perception of student coping with emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The relative impact of educator demographics and professional adaptation and adjustment. Frontiers in Psychology [research topic “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychoeducational Variables Involved in the Health Emergency”]. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648443

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Items  M SD rtt
I can talk my students into learning. 4.69 1.01 .38
I try to make sure everyone in a group feels included. 5.07 .86 .53
I am good at helping people work well together. 4.84 .92 .53
I try to make my group members happy. 4.91 .89 .54
I trust my students. 4.67 .95 .39
Scale 24.18 3.16 .34

Sense of competence scale (N = 1,944, α = .76)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). Teachers’ perception of student coping with emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The relative impact of educator demographics and professional adaptation and adjustment. Frontiers in Psychology [research topic “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychoeducational Variables Involved in the Health Emergency”]. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648443

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Items  M SD rtt
I get things done quickly. 4.42 1.15 .48
I know how to get things done. 4.88 .92 .55
Even with difficult tasks, I am always confident. 4.18 1.13 .51
I like to work on tasks that require a great deal of skill. 4.64 .99 .45
I am a confident user of new technologies. 4.44 1.24 .37
I continually train to keep my teaching skills and knowledge up-to-date. 4.56 1.18 .39
I can manage many things at the same time. 4.87 1.07 .52
I am always prepared. 4.65 1.10 .39
Scale 36.61 5.25 .29

Negative affect scale (N = 804, α = .92)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). The impact of demographics, life and work circumstances on college and university instructors’ well-being during quaranteaching: Findings from a global survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 643229. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643229 [research topic “Covid-19 and Beyond: From (Forced) Remote Teaching and Learning to ‘The New Normal’ in Higher Education”].

Item M SD rtt
I have been feeling irritable. 3.16 1.53 .77
I feel building up pressure. 3.26 1.61 .77
I am feeling exhausted all the time. 3.03 1.61 .75
I have been sad. 3.35 1.62 .74
I feel tired during the day. 3.51 1.60 .71
I have been having bouts of anxiety/panic attacks. 2.62 1.64 .71
I feel I have been losing my sanity. 2.33 1.40 .68
I feel no motivation to do anything. 2.63 1.53 .68
I find it harder to get out of bed in the morning. 2.62 1.61 .64
My dreams have been more emotional/ anxious. 2.87 1.60 .48
My daily life is lacking structure. 2.77 1.50 .46
Scale 32.17 12.71 .51

Note: The introduction to the scale was: “How have you been feeling currently?”

Situational loneliness scale (N = 804, α = .86)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). The impact of demographics, life and work circumstances on college and university instructors’ well-being during quaranteaching: Findings from a global survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 643229. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643229 [research topic “Covid-19 and Beyond: From (Forced) Remote Teaching and Learning to ‘The New Normal’ in Higher Education”].

Item M SD rtt
I miss daily conversations with my colleagues. 2.72 2.64 2.72
I try to stay in touch with my colleagues every day. 2.16 2.30 2.16
I feel lonely. 1.76 2.06 1.76
Scale 6.64 3.18 .68

Note: The introduction to the scale was: “To what extent do you agree with the following statements:”

Situational anxiety scale (N = 804, α = .81)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). The impact of demographics, life and work circumstances on college and university instructors’ well-being during quaranteaching: Findings from a global survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 643229. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643229 [research topic “Covid-19 and Beyond: From (Forced) Remote Teaching and Learning to ‘The New Normal’ in Higher Education”].

Item M SD rtt
I feel anxious about my future. 3.62 1.59 .72
I worry about my job stability. 3.39 1.73 .67
I worry about my family/friends. 4.43 1.39 .55
I worry about housing instability. 2.49 1.54 .54
I am afraid of an approaching economic crisis. 4.80 1.22 .54
The current crisis will further social inequalities. 5.01 1.17 .37
Scale 23.74 6.2 .41

Note: The introduction to the scale was: “To what extent do you agree with the following statements:”

Family and social support scale (N = 804, α = .80)

Reference: Jelińska, M. & Paradowski, M.B. (2021). The impact of demographics, life and work circumstances on college and university instructors’ well-being during quaranteaching: Findings from a global survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 643229. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643229 [research topic “Covid-19 and Beyond: From (Forced) Remote Teaching and Learning to ‘The New Normal’ in Higher Education”].

Item M SD rtt
I feel comfortable having my family/ partner/roommates/flatmates around during this time. 4.34 2.14 .76
I have good relations at home. 4.63 2.12 .72
I enjoy being able to spend more time with my family/children/ partner. 3.95 2.27 .65
I feel the support of my family/ flatmates/ friends/community during this time. 4.68 1.67 .38
Scale 17.61 6.56 .52

Note: The introduction to the scale was: “To what extent do you agree with the following statements:”

Anxiety about the future scale (N = 382, α & ωh = .84, λ6 = .83, ρ = 1.06)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). “Like trying to fit the circle peg in the square hole”: Linguistics instructors’ stress levels during emergency remote teaching in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel anxious about my future. 3.63 1.60 .75
I worry about my job stability. 3.40 1.73 .72
I worry about my family/friends. 4.46 1.39 .61
I worry about housing instability. 2.57 1.60 .59
I worry about the future of my community/society. 4.52 1.44 .54
Scale 18.58 6.07 .52

Situational self-acceptance scale (N = 360, α & λ2 = .63, ρ = .89)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). “Like trying to fit the circle peg in the square hole”: Linguistics instructors’ stress levels during emergency remote teaching in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Items  M SD rtt
I have been kind to myself. 3.63 1.60 .46
It’s okay to feel the way I’m feeling these days. 3.40 1.73 .46
Scale 8.66 2.17 .46

Remote teaching acceptance scale (N = 414, α = .77 ωh = .72, λ6 = .69, ρ = .95)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). “Like trying to fit the circle peg in the square hole”: Linguistics instructors’ stress levels during emergency remote teaching in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Items  M SD rtt
Teaching remotely, I feel like I’m speaking to a brick wall. 3.38 1.58 0.57
My students have not coped well with remote learning. 3.88 1.23 0.54
I feel disengaged in the remote teaching. 3.72 1.58 0.53
I didn’t expect remote teaching to be this hard. 3.77 1.57 0.53
I feel that some of my students have been left behind/fallen through the cracks in the shift to remote teaching. 3.09 1.53 0.51
I feel that I have been left behind by the shift to remote teaching. 4.54 1.37 0.42
Scale 22.38 6.07 .36

Student challenges scale (N = 977, α, ωh and λ6 = .73, ρ = .92)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). Teaching languages online through the COVID-19 pandemic: Prior experience, perception of challenges, and course level predict technological engagement and concerns about learning outcomes.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel that some of my students have been left behind/fallen through the cracks in the shift to remote teaching. 2.62 1.51 .50
My students have not coped well with remote learning. 3.58 1.44 .63
My students have responded positively to my remote teaching. 4.31 1.21 .35
Thanks to the change, some students who used to be passive have now become more active. 3.54 1.55 .31
I find it difficult to evaluate students’ activity during online classes. 2.98 1.62 .46
The students have trouble with concentration and staying focused during the online classes. 3.04 1.49 .56
Scale 20.08 5.76 .32

Technology challenges scale (N = 726, α = .72, ωh = .71, λ6 = .73, ρ = .91)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). Teaching languages online through the COVID-19 pandemic: Prior experience, perception of challenges, and course level predict technological engagement and concerns about learning outcomes.

Items  M SD rtt
I have someone to turn to for support if I experience technical problems with the remote teaching. 4.00 1.68 .21
I feel that I have been left behind by the shift to remote teaching. 4.33 1.57 .34
I have often encountered technical problems with the class (unreliable Internet connection, audio/video issues, etc.). 3.15 1.52 .49
My computer is too slow for the remote teaching software. 4.50 1.54 .53
I lack access to printed materials and resources to prepare my classes. 4.16 1.72 .42
I am a bit uneasy about the possibility of my classes being seen by people other than only my students. 4.02 1.73 .44
My class has been crashed or ‘bombed’ by unauthorised participants. 5.48 1.14 .30
I have been getting spine-/backache from all the sitting in front of the computer. 2.71 1.60 .39
My eyes have been aching or dry from the prolonged screen time. 2.62 1.59 .42
Scale 34.97 7.84 .22

Concerns about future outcomes scale (N = 976, α and ωh = .78, λ6 = .74, ρ = 1)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). Teaching languages online through the COVID-19 pandemic: Prior experience, perception of challenges, and course level predict technological engagement and concerns about learning outcomes.

Items  M SD rtt
I find it difficult to evaluate students’ activity during online classes. 2.98 1.61 .64
I am unable to verify whether the students are learning. 3.22 1.54 .69
I am anxious that some students may be using the situation to cheat in their assignments/exams. 3.19 1.74 .44
I feel that remote teaching reduces my possibility to meet students’ individual/ special needs. 2.66 1.57 .57
Scale 12.04 5.00 .48

Technology engagement scale (N = 737, α = .76, ωh = .75, λ6 = .80, ρ = .87)

Reference: Paradowski, M.B. & Jelińska, M. (under review). Teaching languages online through the COVID-19 pandemic: Prior experience, perception of challenges, and course level predict technological engagement and concerns about learning outcomes.

Items  M SD rtt
I feel disengaged in the remote teaching. 3.74 1.65 .62
I am willing to devote more time to an online class. 3.88 1.47 .23
I have been trying my best to teach well during this time. 5.52 .94 .15
My course(s) is/are not my highest priority right now. 4.36 1.48 .30
I want this remote teaching to be over and to be back in a regular class! 2.62 1.57 .54
I preferred the ‘normal’ class format to the remote one I’m teaching now. 2.39 1.49 .51
The class is calmer and easier to control now. 3.69 1.55 .25
I have been trying to use this opportunity to make my classes inclusive and accessible to everyone, in line with universal design (UDL/508 compliant, e.g. accessible for students with disabilities). 3.98 1.63 .18
I have had to modify my lesson plans for remote teaching. 2.04 1.39 .19
I have eased the grading scheme. 2.69 1.57 .27
During this epidemic, I have felt that I have to alter not just the medium and method, but also the content of my classes. 2.80 1.56 .37
Teaching remotely, I feel like I’m speaking to a brick wall. 3.36 1.58 .50
I often ask students to split into pairs/groups/breakout rooms during the online class. 2.90 1.87 .22
Once this is over, at the very least I will have learnt some new tech skills and methods. 5.02 1.24 .32
I feel enthusiastic about this opportunity to learn new skills. 4.26 1.47 .46
I have been ________ productive than before. 2.97 1.46 .34
Do/Did you like the tools/software/platform you have been using to teach the online classes? 4.20 1.24 .51
Scale 60.42 11.64 .17